England Test and one-day international captain Alastair Cook remains outside the Twenty20 squad, having not played in the shortest format for almost two years.
'Graeme Swann is a highly respected member of the England side,' national selector Geoff Miller said. 'His experience and leadership qualities will be invaluable when he leads a young England team next week, a role he is very much looking forward to.'
England host West Indies at the Oval on 23 and 25 September.
There is no place in the 14-man squad for Kevin Pietersen, while batsman Jonathan Bairstow and spinner Danny Briggs have been selected for the first time.
Fast bowler James Anderson returns to the Twenty20 squad and legspinner Scott Borthwick is the other addition from the squad which beat India by six wickets last month.
'We have once again selected a blend of experienced international performers, along with exciting young players with a great deal of talent,' Miller said.
Graeme Swann (c), James Anderson, Jonathan Bairstow, Ravi Bopara, Scott Borthwick, Tim Bresnan, Danny Briggs, Jos Buttler, Jade Dernbach, Steven Finn, Alex Hales, Craig Kieswetter, Samit Patel, Ben Stokes.